Jellies can be defined as semisolid preparations that are transparent, translucent or nongreasy, intended for internal or external application.
TYPES OF ORAL JELLY
There are three types of jellies-
1. Medicated jelly:
These are chiefly used on mucous membrane and skin for their spermicidal, local anaesthetics, and antiseptic properties. These jellies contain sufficient water. After evaporation of water, jellies provide a local cooling effect and residual film gives protection.
For example, ephedrine sulphate jelly is used as a vasoconstrictor to arrest the bleeding of nose.
2. Lubricating jelly:
These jellies are used for lubrication of diagnostic equipment such as surgical gloves, cystoscopes, catheters.
3. Miscellaneous jelly:
These are meant for various applications like patch testing, electrocardiography etc.
ADVANTAGE OF JELLY
- It can be administer easily i.e., anywhere, anytime as it is easy to handle & doesn’t require water.
- Delivery of therapeutic agent to systemic circulation through the oral mucosa can help to overcome the problems related to difference in drug release and retention times.
- Pharmaceutical jellies can be administer to the patients who cannot swallow tablets or capsules such as the elderly, stroke victims, bedridden patients, patients with esophageal problems & patients who refuse to swallow such as paediatric, geriatric & psychiatric patients and thus improves patient compliance.
- As saliva pass down it facilitate rapid absorption of drugs through pre-gastric absorption from mouth, pharynx & oesophagus and increases bioavailability.
- Jelly is most convenient for disabled, bedridden patients, travellers and busy people, who do not always have access to water.
- Cost effective
- Allow high drug loading.
- Adaptable and amenable to existing processing and packaging & Machinery.
- Rapid onset of action
DISADVANTAGE OF JELLY
- There is stability and degradation problem.
- Problem of dose measurement
EXCEPIENTS USED IN ORAL JELLY
A) GELLING AGENT
- Xantham gum
- Gellan gum
- Guar gum
- Sodium alginate
- Cellulose derivative
EVALUATION PARAMETERS FOR ORAL JELLY
a) Physical evaluation
The medicated jelly can be examined physically forappearance like clarity, texture, transparency,consistency.
b) Stickiness and grittiness
Texture of the medicated jelly in terms of stickiness andgrittiness can be determined by mildly rubbing the jellybetween fingers.
pH of jelly can be measured using digital PH meter. 0.5 g of the weighed formulation was dispersed in 50ml of water and the pH should be noted.
Viscosity was determined using Brookefield viscometer. As the system is non- newtonian spindle no: 4 can be used.
2.5g jelly should be placed in between 2 glass slides andcompressed to proper thickness by keeping 1000g weightfor 5 min. The time in seconds needed to separate 2slides were taken. Less time interval to cover the distance of7.5cmshown better spreadability. S = W *L/T
Where S = spreadability
W = weight tied to upper slide L = length of glass slide
T = time required to separate 2 slides.
Syneresis is defined as contraction and separation of water from gel upon storage. One of the major causes for it is using lesser concentration of gelling agent. Low acylated guar gum gels are mostly prone to syneresis.
g) Drug content
The jellies are selected and crushed in a mortar and then mixture equivalent to that of drug was taken and dissolved in 100ml of volumetric flask containing 6.8pH buffer and final volume was made up to the mark. Then the solution was filtered and diluted appropriately, and analyzed spectrophotometrically using uvspectrophotometer.
h) In – vitro Dissolution study
The USP paddle apparatus used for in-vitro dissolution study by using dissolution medium (900ml) was kept at 37ᵒC +- 0.5ᵒC and 50 rpm. 5 ml of sample should withdrawn after 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90,120 min and sink condition is maintained by replacing fresh media. The sample were determined for drug content using UV spectrophotometer. Then % drug release was calculated after absorbance was taken.
i) Stability studies
The jelly formulations were packed in aluminium foilsand stored in polyethylene containers at 0ᵒC,25ᵒC/60%RH for 90 days.
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