History of Pharmacy profession in India

History, Pharmacy, Profession, India, Pharmacy notes

Pharmacy education in India was earlier directed by the pharmaceutical society of Great Britain.

We discuss Pharmacy Professionals in relation to Pharmacy education in India in two parts:

  • A .Before independence
  • B. After independence

Before 1940 (Before Independence): Initially all the drugs were imported from Europe. Later some drugs of this system began to be manufactured in this country.

A. Before independence: History of Pharmacy Profession India

YearsEvents in Pharmacy Profession
1842First Pharmacy college of Asia was established in Goa by Portuguese
1881Formal Training of Compounder started in Bengal
1878 Opium Act
1901Establishment of the Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works, Calcutta by Acharya P.C. Ray.
1903A small factory at Parel (Bombay) by Prof. T.K. Gujjar
1907Alembic Chemical Works at Baroda by Prof. T.K. Gujjar.
1919Poison act
1930Govt. of India on 11th August 1930 , appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Late Col. R.N.Chopra to see into the problems of Pharmacy in India and recommend the measures to be taken. This committee published its report in 1931
1932Prof. M.L.Schroff (Prof. Mahadeva Lal Schroff) at BHU, Started separate branch of Pharmaceutical Science (first time in India). Introduce pharmaceutical Chemistry as principle subject in B.Sc course
1934Prof. Schroff introduced 2 yrs B.Sc course with subject (Pharma. Chemistry, Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy) at BHU
1935United Province Pharmaceutical Association was established which later converted into Indian Pharmaceutical Association.
1937Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- Start 3 years degree course in Pharmacy@ BHU- Industry Orinted Government of India brought ‘Import of Drugs Bill’; later it was withdrawn.
1939Indian Journal of Pharmacy was started by Prof. M.L. Schroff
1940-Drugs Bill’to regulate the imort, manufacture, sale and distribution of drugs in British India. This Bill was finally adopted as ‘Drugs Act of 1940’. -All India Pharmaceutical Congress Association was established in 1940.  M.Pharm (1 year after 3 yrs degree)course @ BHU by Prof Schroff
1941The first Drugs Technical Advisory Board (D.T.A.B.)
1943M. L. schroff left BHU & Join Birla Brother as Chief Chemist & Research Officer, Principal of BITS pilani
1944-University institute of pharmaceutical science Panjab University, Chandigarh (State Govt) -B.Pharm course @ Punjab University, Lahore (Now in pakistan)- Pharmacy practice orinted
1945Drugs Rule under the Drugs Act of 1940’ was established. Govt. brought the Pharmacy Bill to standardize the Pharmacy Education in India.
1946Indian Pharmacopoeia List
1947L. M. College of pharmacy, Ahemdabad (Private)
History of Pharmacy profession in India (Before Independence)

B. After independence: History of Pharmacy Profession India

YearsEvents in Pharmacy Profession
1948-1948: Pharmacy Act 1948 published. -Indian Pharmacopoeial Committee was constituted under the chairmanship of late Dr. B.N. Ghosh
1949-Pharmacy Council of India (P.C.I.) was established under Pharmacy Act 1948 -First Diploma in Pharmacy education institute started- Jalpaiguri- 2 yrs programe course
1950-Department of Pharmacy, Madras Medical College, Chennai -Birla Institute of Science & Technology, Pilani, RJ
1951College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Visakhapatnam, AP
1952Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr H. S. Gour University, Sagaur, MP
1954Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954 was passed to stop misleading advertisements (e.g. Cure all pills) Education Regulation have come in force in some states but other states lagged behind.
1955-Medicinal and Toilet Prepartions (Excise Duties) -1st Edition of Indian Pharmacopoeia was published – Essential Commodities Act, 1955
1956Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagpur University, Nagpur
1958Pharmaceutical Deptt., University Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai University, MH
1963Deptt. Of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata
1966The DPCO (DRUGS (PRICES CONTROL) ORDER) was first passed in 1966 and then revised in 1970, 1979, 1987, 1995 & 2013 (Issued  under the “Essential Commodities Act, 1955“)
1978Drug policy 1978 & Drug policy 1986 ,& In September 1994, the new drug policy was announced.
1985Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances Act has been enacted to protect society from the dangers of addictive drugs.
1994NIPER, Mohali -registered as a society under the Societies Act.
1998Parliament enacted National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Act, 1998. NIPER was declared as an “Institute of National Importance”
2002PHARMACEUTICAL POLICY 2002 (Not implemented)- Court case
2012NATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL PRICING POLICY (NPPA 2012) seeks to replace the Drug policy 1994
2015PPR Act 2015
2020ER (Education Regulation) 2020
2022DPEE (Diploma in Pharmacy Exit Examination) 2022
History of Pharmacy in India (After Independence)

Current status of Pharmacy in India

§PPR 2015(Pharmacy Practice Regulations) 2015 & Education regulation 2020 have been introduced by PCI to keeping pace with latest current & emerging trends in the field of Pharmacy.(फार्मेसी प्रैक्टिस रेगुलेशन) 2015 और एजुकेशन रेगुलेशन 2020 को पीसीआई द्वारा फार्मेसी के क्षेत्र में नवीनतम वर्तमान और उभरते रुझानों के साथ तालमेल रखने के लिए पेश किया गया है।

§Currently we have more than 16 lacs registered Pharmacists in the country (till April 2022), of which maximum are community pharmacist having diploma in pharmacy.

§Diploma holders largely handle the pharmacy profession and the providing of quality pharmaceutical care is still a dream.

Educational Programs/Courses in India

  • 1.Pharmacy programs/courses are offered in India today:
  • 2.Diploma in Pharmacy (D. Pharm.)
  • 3.Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm.)
  • 4.Master of Pharmacy (M. Pharm.)
  • 5.Master of Science in pharmacy [MS (Pharm)]
  • 6.practice-based Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.)
  • 7.Doctor of Philosophy in Pharmacy (Ph. D)

The entry point, for D.Pharm, B.Pharm, and Pharm.D programs is 12 years (10+2) of formal education in the sciences.

CourseEntry levelDurationRegulationComment
D. Pharm10+22PCILast revised 1991
B. Pharm10+24PCICurriculum is a decade old
M. PharmB. Pharm2PCIMany disciplines
M. Pharm (Clinical)B. Pharm2PCIStarted in 1997
Pharm. D.10+26PCIStarted in 2008
Pharm. D. (Post B.S.)B. Pharm3PCIStarted in 2008
Educational Programs in India

MS (Pharm)

§In September 1994, Govt of India established NIPER, Mohali Punjab under NIPER act 1998

§There are 6 National Institutes of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPERs) in India offering MS (Pharm), M.Tech (Pharm), and higher-level degrees. The NIPERs were created with the vision of providing excellence in pharmacy and pharmacy-related education.

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