Formulation of Pharmaceutical Suspension

Formulation & Evaluation of Suspension

Manufacturing of suspension

The formulation of a suspension depends on whether the suspension is flocculated or deflocculated. Three approaches are commonly involved.

  1. Use of structured vehicle
  2. Use of controlled flocculation
  3. Combination of both of the methods
Formulation of Suspension, Manufacturing, Flocculated, Deflocculated suspension, The Pharmapedia, Pharmapedia
Formulation of Pharmaceutical Suspension

Structured vehicle

  • Structured vehicles called also thickening or suspending agents.
  • They are aqueous solutions of natural and synthetic gums.
  • It is applicable only to deflocculated suspensions.
  • E.g. methylcellulose, sodium carboxy methylcellulose, acacia, gelatin and tragacanth. These are used to increase the viscosity of the suspnsion.
  • These structured vehicles entrapped the particle and reduces the sedimentation of particles.
  • Thus, the use of deflocculated particles in a structure vehicle may form solid hard cake upon long storage.
  • Too high viscosity is not desirable as:
    • a) It causes difficulty in pouring and administration.
    • b) It may affect drug absorption since they adsorb on the surface of particle and suppress the dissolution rate.
  • Structured vehicle is not useful for Parenteral suspension because they may create problem in syringeability due to high viscosity.

Controlled flocculation

Controlled flocculation of particles is obtained by adding flocculating agents, which are:
(1) electrolytes
(2) surfactants
(3) polymers

Flocculation in structured vehicles

Sometimes suspending agents can be added to the flocculated suspension to retard sedimentation
Examples of these agents are:ƒCarboxymethylcellulose (CMC), ƒCarbopol, ƒVeegum, and bentonite

Ingredients for formulation of suspensions

1.APITherapeutic active substance
2.Wetting agents HLB= 7-9Added to disperse solids in the continuous phase.
Decrease interfacial tension between solid particles and liquid mediums.
E.g. Alcohol in tragacanth mucilage, Glycerin in sodium alginate.  
3.Flocculating agents (Surfactant & Polymer)To floc the drug particles;
They lead to a decrease in repulsion potential and make particles come together to form loosely arranged floccules.
Act by reducing the surface tension. E.g. SLS, Tweens, Span, Carbowax.  
4.Thickened & Suspending agentsImpart viscosity of the suspension
a. Polysaccharide=> Natural- Acacia, Starch, Talc ; Synthetic- MC, b. HPMC
b. Inorganic agents=> Clay, AI(OH)3
c. Synthetic => Carbomer, Collodial SiO2  
5.Buffer/ pH adjustingTo stabilize the suspension at the desired pH range
6.Osmotic agentTo adjust osmotic pressure (Specially Parenteral preparation)
7.Organoleptic additiveTo impart desire color to improve elegance Coloring agent, sweetening agent, Flavoring agents
8.PreservativeTo prevent Microorganism growth Benzoic acid,  Methylparaben, Benzoic acid, Sodium benzoate
9.Protective ColloidsThey are absorbed on insoluble particles and increase the strength of the hydration layer formed around suspended particles through hydrogen bonding and molecular interaction. E.g- Gelatin, natural gum and cellulosic derivatives.  
Ingredients for the formulation of suspensions

Wetting agents

  • Hydrophilic materials are easily wetted by water while hydrophobic materials are not.
  • However hydrophobic materials are easily wetted by non-polar liquids.
  • The extent of wetting by water is dependent on the hydrophillicity of the materials.
  • If the material is more hydrophilic- less difficulty in wetting by water.
  • The concentration used is less than 0.5 %.

Suspending Agents:

  • Suspending agent are also known as hydrophilic colloids which form colloidal dispersion with Water and increase the
    viscosity of the continous phase.
    Suspending agent form film around particle and decrease interparticle attraction.
  • Most suspending agents perform two functions (i.e. besides acting as a suspending agent, they also imparts viscosity to the solution).
Suspending Agents

Read more…

Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Suspension

Join Our WhatsApp Group to receive the latest updates like Pharma Job notifications, study materials, admission alerts, Pharma News, etc

Join Our Telegram Group to receive the latest updates like Pharma Job notifications, study materials, admission alerts, Pharma News, etc

Join Our Telegram Group to Download Free Books & Notes, Previous papers for D.Pharm, B.Pharm, M.Pharm, Drug Inspector & GPAT……….


We’d love to keep you updated with our latest news!


Sign up to receive latest updates in your inbox.

1 thought on “Formulation of Pharmaceutical Suspension”

  1. Pingback: Pharmaceutical Suspension: Classification, Flucculated & Deflocculated Suspension – The Pharmapedia

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

Open chat
Need Help?
Welcome to The Pharmapedia
How can we help you?
%d bloggers like this: