Microbiology

Mycobacterium leprae: Types of Leprosy, Pathogenesis & Epidemiology of leprosy

Leprosy is a chronic bacterial disease and it is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Leprosy was first observed by Hansen in 1868 so also known as Hansen disease. It mainly affects the skin, eyes, nose and peripheral nerves. It is a gram-positive acid-fast bacteria for which 5% percent sulphuric acid is used for the decolorization after …

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Differential staining: Gram staining & Acid-fast staining technique| Microbiology

Differential staining, Gram staining, Acid-fast staining, technique, Microbiology, Pharmacy notes, Pharmapedia, ThePharmapedia

As name indicates these technique imparts different colour to different bacteria or bacterial structure. It allows us to differentiate between different kinds of bacterial cells or different parts of a bacterial cell. Differential stain technique includes the following technique:- 1. Gram staining 2. Acid Fast staining/Zeihl-Neelsen staining 3. Albert’s stains Gram staining The most commonly …

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Classification of Bacteria on the basis of Nutrition, oxygen requirement, growing temperature & pH

Classification of bacteria, nutrition, oxygen, growing temperature, pharmapedia, thepharmapedia

Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that do not contain chlorophyll. They are unicellular and do not show true branching. They differ from eukaryotes in not having a nuclear membrane, a nucleolus, and cell organelles like mitochondria, golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. They have a single circular chromosome. For growth and multiplication of bacteria, they require nutrition …

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Exotoxin and Endotoxin: Bacterial Metabolic Product

Difference between Exotoxin and Endotoxin Endotoxin Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide binds to neutrophil and delta neutrophil function by decreasing chemotactic activity and migration and also alter the bactericidal property of neutrophils. Endotoxin cannot destroy by autoclave. Endotoxins antigenic and cannot be toxoid so that they can not be utilized by antibodies. Difference between Exotoxin and Endotoxin Exotoxin …

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Rideal Walker test & Chick-Martin Test: Phenol coefficient Test | GPAT Drug Inspector

Evaluation, Disinfectant, Pharmapedia, Rideal Walker test,Chick-Martin Test, Phenol coefficient Test

Phenol compounds at a concentration of 2-5% are generally considered bactericidal, tuberculocidal, fungicidal and virucidal against lipophilic viruses. The phenol coefficient of a disinfectant is calculated by dividing the dilution of the test disinfectant by the dilution of phenol that disinfects under predetermined conditions. Disinfectants that are more effective than phenol have a coefficient >1 …

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