Difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

An organism may comprise just a single cell (unicellular), a collection of cells that are not morphologically or functionally differentiated (colonial), or several distinct cell types with specialized functions (multicellular). Among microorganisms, all bacteria and protozoans are unicellular; fungi may be unicellular or multicellular, while algae may exist in all three forms.

All organisms are made up of two distinct cell types, i.e

  1. Procaryotic and
  2. Eucaryotic cells
ProkaryotesEukaryotes
Bacteria
BGA
Fungi
Algae
Protozoa
Plants
Animals
Table1: Groups of procaryotic and eucaryotic organisms

Microorganisms are using structure of microscope size. Previously microorganisms were classified into groups that is Plant and Animal kingdom. This classification was unsatisfactory therefore a third Kingdom Protista was formed.

Protista

This group is divided into two groups

  1. Eukaryotes
  2. Prokaryotes

Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cells differ from each other in many ways, including size, structural complexity and organization of genetic material (see table 2). The fundamental difference between procaryotic and eucaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells possess a true nucleus and several other distinct subcellular membrane-bound organelles. Procaryotes have no such organelles and true nucleus.

Differences between prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

StructureProkaryotesEukaryotes
Nucleus  
Nuclear membraneAbsentPresent
NucleolusAbsentPresent
Chromosomes/genetic materialsOne circular, Free in cytoplasmMore than one (in pair) & present within a membrane-bound nucleus
DeoxyrobonucleoproteinAbsentPresent
DivisionBinarymitosis
Cytoplasm  ThePharmapedia.com
Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulumAll are AbsentAll are Present
RibosomesSmaller (70S), free in
cytoplasm
Larger (80S), free in the cytoplasm or attached to membranes
Respiratory enzymesBound to plasma membranelocated in mitochondria
Chemical Composition Prepared by ThePharmapedia.com
SterolsAbsentPresent
Muramic acidPresentAbsent
Histone proteinAbsentPresent (complexed with DNA)
Cell wallUsually based on peptidoglycanWhen present, based on cellulose or chitin
External featuresThePharmapedia.com
CiliaAbsentMay be present
FlagellaIf present, composed of flagellin (Provide rotating motility)if present, have a complex (9+2) structure (Provide ‘whiplash’ motility).
PiliMay be presentAbsent
SizeTypically 1-5 μmtypically 10- 100 μm
Example ThePharmapedia.comBacteria & Blue-Green AlgaeFungi, algae (except blue-green algae), Protozoa and Slime molds.
Table: 2 Difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryote
Figure: Difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryote

Prokaryote

Prokaryotes contain two types of microorganism.s

  • Bacteria and
  • blue green algae

Eukaryote

This group includes Fungi, algae (except blue green algae), Protozoa and Slime molds.

Similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell

  1. A plasma membrane
  2. Genetic information encoded on DNA (ds DNA)
  3. Ribosomes act as the site of protein synthesis

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